Service-level agreements (SLAs)—those contractual agreements defining the expected performance of a service provider— alone will not guarantee success when outsourcing application development and maintenance work. They’re one of many tools to help manage an IT outsourcing deal.
When the proper governance of an application development and maintenance relationship is in place, however, “the right SLAs are very effective and will set the standard for the quality of work the provider will generate,” says Steven Kirz, managing director for business transformation with outsourcing consultancy Pace Harmon.
It’s critical to put in place an effective SLA schedule for outsourced application development and maintenance—one that not only looks good on paper, but translates into accountability and business results in real life. CIO.com talked to Kirz about how SLAs should work, the most common ways IT outsourcing customers use (and abuse them), and how to develop a strategic set of SLAs that takes into account the complexities of today's application outsourcing engagements.
How important are SLAs to application development and maintenance deals?
Kirz:For any outsourcing agreement, SLAs are important, but they are one of many tools available to help manage the agreement. Keep in mind that while SLAs are helpful in managing the service delivery, they are not a surrogate for strategic governance of the overall relationship, nor do they replace any responsibilities of the retained organization as it pertains to setting architectural standards, policies, and priorities.
Also, it is important remember that SLAs are more than metrics. The SLA schedule in an agreement includes the measurement protocols, performance targets, relative priorities, and processes to adjust priorities or add or remove metrics. Best in class organizations manage far beyond the metrics and use the SLA regime as more than a ‘carrot and stick’, but rather as a mechanism to engage in a conversation with providers regarding past performance, priorities, and future direction.
In order to meet the SLAs, the provider will deploy the right resources and invest in the improved processes and tools required by the SLAs. Without the right SLAs, the quality of resources, the tenure of those resources, and the process improvements will be demonstrably different.
What’s wrong with the way some IT customers employ SLAs for application development and maintenance?
Kirz: Comprehensive SLAs include metrics, performance targets, at risk amounts tied to each metric, and—in the aggregate—a protocol for adding and removing metrics. It is critical that customers of outsourced services treat the SLA as a living, breathing document that evolves with the relationship.
Customers who get the most out of their SLAs are those that view it on a positive trajectory and use it as part of an ongoing process of motivating their service providers to achieve continuous service delivery improvement. On the other hand, customers with a negative perspective tend to treat the SLAs as a static document and a mechanism to recapture funds. These customers typically don’t receive best in class performance from their providers nor do they deliver best in class service to their internal stakeholders and customers.
What are the biggest mistakes you see IT buyers make when it comes to selecting SLAs for their deals?
Kirz: Specific SLA problem areas include:
Business alignment. Many customers still don’t take the time to understand the levels of service and performance that the business requires; instead, they use SLAs they find in other deals. Working with the business to understand what SLAs really matter allows customers to focus SLAs (and therefore their providers) on what really matters and better align with business objectives.
Earn backs. Earn backs are a mechanism that allow providers to perform at or above the SLA standard for a fixed amount of time in order to make up for an SLA default. When the earn-back requirement is met, the provider no longer has to pay the SLA credit. Providers are often able to convince customers that earn backs are ‘fair’ or that the provider can agree to more stringent SLAs if there is an earn-back mechanism in place. However, earn backs dilute the incentive for the providers to deliver the resources and process improvements that make SLAs important in the first place.
Inability to measure SLAs. Some customers create SLAs that cannot be measured because the tools with which to perform the measurement are never implemented. Providers should be made responsible for implementing the tools with which to measure SLAs.