(Test machine: Core i7-4700k, Gigabyte Z87 motherboard, 16GB DDR3 memory, OCZ Vertex 4 SSD boot disk, Nvidia GTX 6700 graphics card, Windows 7 64-bit edition)
As you can see, IE isn't even close to Chrome or Firefox in any of the tests.
Interestingly, when I upgraded to Windows 10, there was a notable performance bump. On the exact same hardware, things got much faster. The boot time went from 35 seconds to 29 seconds, according to Wise Care 365, a utility I highly recommend.
I also noticed improvements while gaming, especially "EverQuest" and its hard zone lines that have to be loaded (unlike "World of Warcraft," where you never really zone). The same was true for "Diablo 3." Zoning was much quicker than on Windows 7. The result was IE 11 saw some improvements just upgrading to Windows 10.
Canvasmark shot up 38% for IE while Browsermark rose 11%. The reason, apparently, is DirectX 12, which greatly reduced CPU overhead and accelerated WebGL performance. Those two benchmarks both test HTML5 2D canvas rendering.
So now we come to the overall Windows 10 performance, with the same three browsers plus Edge.
Edge is still a work in progress, and I would expect improved performance in time. For example, it was just announced that Edge would add support for the .WebM video format. So the browser will keep evolving. The challenge now is for Microsoft to win back those defectors to Chrome and Firefox.