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Error 404--Not Found

Error 404--Not Found

From RFC 2068 Hypertext Transfer Protocol -- HTTP/1.1:

10.4.5 404 Not Found

The server has not found anything matching the Request-URI. No indication is given of whether the condition is temporary or permanent.

If the server does not wish to make this information available to the client, the status code 403 (Forbidden) can be used instead. The 410 (Gone) status code SHOULD be used if the server knows, through some internally configurable mechanism, that an old resource is permanently unavailable and has no forwarding address.

Twenty years and counting

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As we at Network World wax nostalgic over our twentieth anniversary this week, it's time to indulge in a look back on information technology, a business that tends to rush forward in a mad dash to the next big thing, discarding "old" ideas with nary a backward glance. A recent chat I had with Tatu Ylonen, who founded the Helsinki, Finland-based SSH Communications Security Corp. in 1995, was a reminder how the forces of history can shape the inventions of our time.

Finnish-born and bred Ylonen is the inventor of Secure Shell (SSH), the encryption-based technology that's become widely used by systems administrators for secure remote log-in and file transfer. Banks, including Citigroup, Royal Bank of Canada and HSBC are counted among its customers.

In reflecting on how he got interested in cryptography, Ylonen, a graduate with a masters in science from the Helsinki University of Technology, recalled how back in the Cold War era in which he grew up, there was express fear about the potential for nuclear war between the U.S. and Soviet Russia.

Finland is a next-door neighbor to Russia, with which it had strained ties historically. One phenomenon of the Cold War situation of the '70s and '80s is that it was commonplace for Finnish inhabitants to build underground garages for their houses which also served as bomb shelters. This got Ylonen thinking about security.

Later in the '90s, the U.S. government's push to have industry vendors install a key-escrow system in every product using encryption -- so the government could gain access to encrypted data -- also had a big impact on Ylonen.

The idea, which came to a head during the Clinton Administration, was based on the notion that key-escow was necessary to fight terrorism and crime.

However, the idea that governments anywhere would find such an easy way to obtain an individual's encrypted data troubled Ylonen. Consequently, "I wrote Secure Shell during the crypto debate," said Ylonen.

The idea of key-escrow pushed by the National Security Agency and the Clinton Administration collapsed under the pressure of opposing forces, both from industry and civil-rights groups, by 2001. The Cold War limped to an end as East European states abandoned Communism in the late '80 and the Soviet Union collapsed in 1991, giving rise to modern-day Russia.

SSH Communications Security Corp., however, lives on, with about 190 employees working for it today.

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Comments

Cogras!For your twentieth anniversary celebration.
I am one of the postgraduate student. I like to do research. I am interested in Networking.I like to do some project(as such Research).But i don't have an idea about how to initiate and proceed.
Can You help me.

Posted by: pankaj on March 30, 2006 09:48 AM

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