Chapter 1: Cisco Unified Communications Manager Architecture

Cisco Press

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The number of units required per device can be viewed from CUCM Administration. DLUs are perpetual and device independent. Figure 1-7 displays the number of DLUs consumed in CUCM 6.0 by some popular phones.

Figure 1-7

Device License Units

The main components of the license file are as follows:

  • MAC address of the license server (publisher)

  • Version (major release) of the CUCM software

  • Number of node licenses (number of CUCM servers in cluster)

  • Number of DLUs

License files are additive. (Multiple license files can be loaded.) The Cisco FlexLM process is used to obtain licenses, and integrity of license files is assured by a digital signature.

When upgrading from Cisco Unified CallManager 4.x, the number of DLUs required is calculated during the CUCM migration process, and an intermediate XML file containing these license counts is generated. The number of devices and servers that are in the database at the time of migration is the basis for the number of DLUs and node licenses in the interim license file. No additional phones may be added until the interim license file has been replaced by a real license file.

After upgrading to CUCM 6.0(1), use the View File option in the License File Upload window to view the intermediate XML file. Copy and paste the intermediate license file into the CUCM License Upgrade window on to obtain the actual license file. Upload the actual license file to the publisher (license server).

Existing device and node licenses from CUCM 5.x can be used in CUCM 6.x.

Example 1-1 shows an example license file.

Example 1-1 Example License File

INCREMENT PHONE_UNIT cisco 6.0 permanent uncounted \

 <LicFileVersion>1.0</L icFileVersion> \
HOSTID=000bcd4ee59d NOTICE="<LicFileID>20050826140539162</LicFileID><LicLineID>2
  </LicLineID> \
<PAK></PAK>" SIGN="112D 17E4 A755 5EDC F616 0F2B B820 AA9C \
0313 A36F B317 F359 1E08 5E15 E524 1915 66EA BC9F A82B CBC8 \
4CAF 2930 017F D594 3E44 EBA3 04CD 01BF 38BA BF1B"

Significant fields are highlighted and described as follows:

  • INCREMENT PHONE_UNIT Cisco 6.0 indicates a phone unit license file for Cisco Unified CM 6.0. There is no expiration date for this license, as indicated by the keyword permanent.

  • Note - The INCREMENT type for CUCM node licenses is CCM_NODE cisco 6.0 permanent uncounted. The INCREMENT for software licenses is SW_FEATURE cisco 6.0 permanent uncounted.

  • This license file includes 1000 license units.

  • The MAC address of the license server is 000BCD4EE59D.

License File Request Process

Figure 1-8 displays the license file request process, which includes these steps:

  1. The customer places an order for CUCM.

  2. The manufacturing database scans the Product Authorization Key (PAK) and records it against the sales order.

  3. The product (CD or paper claim certificate) is physically delivered to the customer.

  4. The customer registers the product at or a public web page and provides the MAC address of the publisher device that will become the license server.

  5. The license fulfillment infrastructure validates the PAK, and the license key generator creates a license file.

  6. The license file is delivered via e-mail to the customer. The e-mail also contains instructions on how to install the license file.

  7. The customer installs the license file on the license server (publisher).

Figure 1-8

License File Request Process

Obtaining Additional Licenses

The process of obtaining additional DLUs and node licenses is as follows:

  1. The customer places an order for the additional licenses for a license server (publisher MAC address has to be specified).

  2. When the order is received, generates a license file with the additional count and sends it to the customer.

  3. The new license file has to be uploaded to the license server and will be cumulative.

Consider this example. A CUCM server has an existing license file that contains 100 DLUs. Another 100 DLUs are purchased. The second license file that is generated will contain only 100 DLUs. When the new license file with 100 DLUs is uploaded to CUCM, the 100 DLUs from the first license file are added to the devices of the second license file, resulting in a total of 200 DLUs.

Licensing Components

The key licensing components of CUCM licensing are the license server and the license manager.

License Server

The license server service runs on the publisher in the CUCM cluster and is responsible for keeping track of the licenses purchased and consumed. The MAC address of the publisher is required to generate a license file.

License Manager

The license manager acts as a broker between CUCM applications that use licensing information and the license server. The license manager receives requests from the CUCM applications and forwards the requests to the license server. The license manager then responds back to the application after the request has been processed by the license server. The license manager acts a licensing proxy server.

An administration subsystem and alarm subsystem complete the functional diagram. Details of these two subsystems are as follows:

  • The administration subsystem provides the following capabilities:

  • Keeps information about the license units required for each phone type. The customer can view this information using a GUI.

    Supports a GUI tool that calculates the required number of phone unit licenses. The customer inputs phone types and the number of phones of each type that the customer wants to purchase. The output is the total number of licenses that the customer needs for the given configuration.

    Supports a GUI tool that displays the total license capacity and the number of licenses in use and license file details. The tool can also report the number of available licenses.

  • The alarm subsystem generates alarms that are routed to event logs or sent to a management station as Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP) traps to notify the administrator of the following conditions:

  • — Overdraft: Occurs when an overdraft condition exists. An overdraft condition occurs when more licenses are used than available but the amount of exceeding licenses is in an acceptable range. (5 percent overdraft is permitted.)

    — License server down: Occurs when the License Manager cannot reach the license server.

    — Insufficient licenses: Occurs when the license server detects the fact that there are not sufficient licenses to fulfill the request and raises an alarm to notify the administrator.

Issues with the license file occur when there is a version mismatch between the license file and the CUCM (license file version mismatch alarm), or when the number of licenses in the license file is less than the number of phones provisioned (license file insufficient licenses alarm). Another cause of this condition is an invalid MAC address (for instance, after a NIC change).

Figure 1-9 is a functional diagram stepping through the process of a license request, as described in the list that follows:

  1. A request for a certain number of DLUs is made by the admin subsystem because of an event (for example, phone registration).

  2. The License Manager service on a CUCM subscriber forwards the request to the publisher server running the License Server service.

  3. The License Server service receives the license request event and allocates the required number of DLUs required based on the type of device. If not enough license units are available to accommodate the request, a deny message is sent back to the license manager on the subscriber server. If resources are available, the license server grants the request and sends a grant message to the license manager on the subscriber server.

  4. The License Manager service on the subscriber server receives the license grant or deny message and allows the phone to register.

  5. If the license request was denied, the subscriber server generates an alarm in the alarm subsystem. The deny message will be available in the CUCM syslog server by default.

Figure 1-9

Licensing Functional Diagram

Calculating License Units

To calculate the number of phone licenses required, follow these steps:

Step 1 Choose System > License > License Unit Calculator. The License Unit Calculator window displays. The number of license units consumed per device and the current number of devices display as shown in Figure 1-10.

Step 2 In the Number of Devices column, enter the desired number of devices, corresponding to each node or phone.

Step 3 Click Calculate. The total number of CUCM node license units and DLUs required for specified configuration will display.

Figure 1-10

License Unit Calculator

License Unit Reporting

License unit reports can be run to verify the number of licenses consumed and available for future expansion. Use the following procedure to generate a license unit report:

Step 1 Choose System > License > License Unit Report.

Step 2 The License Unit Report window displays as shown in Figure 1-11. This window displays the number of phone licenses and number of node licenses, in these categories:

  • Units Authorized

  • Units Used

  • Units Remaining

Figure 1-11

License Unit Report

License files (CCMxxxxx.lic) are uploaded to the publisher (license server). To upload a license file to the publisher server, follow these steps:

Step 1 Ensure that the license file is downloaded to a local PC.

Step 2 From the PC and using a supported browser, log in to CUCM Administration.

Step 3 Choose System > License > License File Upload, as shown in Figure 1-12. The License File Upload window displays.

Figure 1-12

License File Upload Procedure

Step 4 In the window shown in Figure 1-13, click Upload License File.

Step 5 Click Browse to choose the license file from the local directory.

Step 6 Click Upload.

Figure 1-13

License File Upload Procedure (continued)

Step 7 After the upload process has completed, click the Continue prompt when it appears. The content of the newly uploaded license file will display.

Chapter Summary

The following list summarizes the key points that were discussed in this chapter:

  • Cisco Unified Communications (UC) is a community of components designed to enable rapid, efficient communications. UC components include the following:

  • Endpoints

    Application integration

    Call control


  • Cisco Unified Communications Manager (CUCM) is the call-routing component of the Cisco UC ecosystem, providing call setup and teardown services to both voice and video communications. CUCM provides a centralized command and control topology to configuration management while leveraging the distributed nature of IP communications.

  • CUCM is a software solution that is supported on various hardware configurations. Media Convergence Servers (MCS) are Cisco-branded hardware solutions that run on HP or IBM server platforms.

  • CUCM Versions 5.0 and later use an appliance model where most administration is performed on a client pointing to the web services running on CUCM. The hardened operating system is based on the Red Hat Linux variant. There is no access to the Linux kernel, and this lack of access provides a high level of security to the Cisco UC platform. CUCM versions before 5.0 (4.x and earlier) used a Microsoft Windows-based operating system.

  • CUCM database Versions 5.0 and later leverages the IBM Informix Dynamic Server (IDS) to store all configuration data, including the user database. Versions earlier than 5.0 use a Microsoft SQL server database for most configuration information, while user information is stored in the DC Directory server. The DC Directory and the IBM IDS are LDAP-compliant databases.

  • CUCM licensing consists of the license server and the license manager. The license server component runs on the publisher server, whereas the license manager runs on every server.

Review Questions

Use the questions here to review what you learned in this chapter. The correct answers are found in Appendix A, "Answers to Chapter Review Questions."

  1. Which layer of the Cisco Unified Communications components is responsible for delivering a dial tone?

    1. Endpoints

    2. Applications

    3. Call control

    4. Infrastructure

  2. What is the name of the server in a CUCM cluster that maintains a read/write copy of the entire database?

    1. Member server

    2. Domain controller

    3. Subscriber

    4. Publisher

  3. What protocol is responsible for transporting voice over IP?

    1. Skinny Client Control Protocol (SCCP)

    2. H.323

    3. Real-Time Transport Protocol (RTP)

    4. Real-Time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP)

    5. Media Gateway Control Protocol (MGCP)

    6. Skinny Gateway Control Protocol (SGCP)

  4. How many call-processing agents can be active in a CUCM cluster?

    1. 20

    2. 4

    3. 8

    4. 9

    5. 2

  5. How many call-processing agents can be in a CUCM cluster?

    1. 20

    2. 4

    3. 8

    4. 9

    5. 2

  6. How many servers can be in a CUCM cluster?

    1. 20

    2. 4

    3. 8

    4. 9

    5. 2

  7. Which CUCM server is the license manager component active on?

    1. Member server

    2. Domain controller

    3. Subscriber

    4. Publisher

    5. All servers

  8. Which CUCM server is the license server component active on?

    1. Member server

    2. Domain controller

    3. Subscriber

    4. Publisher

    5. All servers

  9. On which server in the CUCM cluster are license files loaded?

    1. Member server

    2. Domain controller

    3. Subscriber

    4. Publisher

    5. All servers

  10. Which of the following features is not a user-facing feature (UFF)?

    1. Call Forward All (CFA)

    2. Message Waiting Indication (MWI)

    3. Attendant Console (Login/Logout)

    4. Privacy (Enable/Disable)

    5. Do Not Disturb (Enable/Disable) (DND)

    6. Extension Mobility (Login/Logout) (EM)

    7. Hunt Group Login Status

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