Chapter 17: IP Version 6

Cisco Press

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Figure 17-6 takes the concept to the final conclusion, assigning the specific four subnets to be used inside Company1. Note that the figure shows the subnet fields and prefix lengths (64 in this case) in bold.

Figure 17-6

Company1 with Four Subnets Assigned


NOTE - The subnet numbers in the figure could be abbreviated slightly, removing the three leading 0s from the last shown quartets.


Figure 17-6 just shows one option for subnetting the prefix assigned to Company1. However, any number of subnet bits could be chosen, as long as the host field retained enough bits to number all hosts in a subnet. For example, a /112 prefix length could be used, extending the /48 prefix by 64 bits (4 hex quartets). Then, for the design in Figure 17-6, you could choose the following four subnets:

  • 2340:1111:AAAA::0001:0000/112

  • 2340:1111:AAAA::0002:0000/112

  • 2340:1111:AAAA::0003:0000/112

  • 2340:1111:AAAA::0004:0000/112

By using global unicast IPv6 addresses, Internet routing can be very efficient and enterprises can have plenty of IP addresses and plenty of subnets, with no requirement for NAT functions to conserve the address space.

Prefix Terminology

Before wrapping up this topic, a few new terms need to be introduced. The process of global unicast IPv6 address assignment examines many different prefixes, with many different prefix lengths. The text scatters a couple of more specific terms, but for easier study, Table 17-4 summarizes the four key terms, with some reminders of what each means.

Table 17-4 Example IPv6 Prefixes and Their Meanings

Term

Assignment

Example from Chapter 17

Registry prefix

By ICANN to an RIR

2340::/12

ISP prefix

By an RIR to an ISP1

2340:1111/32

Site prefix

By an ISP to a customer (site)

2340:1111:AAAA/48

Subnet prefix

By an enterprise engineer for each individual link

2340:1111:AAAA:0001/64

1While an RIR can assign a prefix to an ISP, an RIR can also assign a prefix to other Internet registries, which can subdivide and assign additional prefixes, until eventually an ISP and then its customers are assigned some unique prefix.

The next sections of this chapter broaden the discussion of IPv6 to include additional types of IPv6 addresses, along with the protocols that control and manage several common functions for IPv6.

IPv6 Protocols and Addressing

IPv4 hosts need to know several basic facts before they can succeed in simple tasks like opening a web browser to view a web page. IPv4 hosts typically need to know the IP address of one or more Domain Name System (DNS) servers so that they can use DNS protocol messages to ask a DNS server to resolve that name into an IPv4 address. They need to know an IP address of a router to use as a default gateway (default router), with the host sending packets destined to a host in a different subnet to that default router. The host, of course, needs to know its unicast IPv4 IP address and mask—or, as stated with classless terminology, its IPv4 address and prefix length—from which the host can calculate the prefix (subnet) on that link.

IPv6 hosts need the same information—DNS IP addresses, default router IP address, and their own address/prefix length—for the same reasons. IPv6 hosts still use host names, and they need to have the host name resolved into an IPv6 address. IPv6 hosts still send packets directly to hosts on the same subnet, but they send packets to the default router for off-subnet destinations.

While IPv6 hosts need to know the same information, IPv6 changes the mechanisms for learning some of these facts compared to IPv4. The following sections examine the options and protocols through which a host can learn these key pieces of information. At the same time, these sections introduce several other types of IPv6 addresses that are used by the new IPv6 protocols. The end of these sections summarizes the details and terminology for the various types of IPv6 addresses.

DHCP for IPv6

IPv6 hosts can use Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) to learn and lease an IP address and corresponding prefix length (mask), the IP address of the default router, and the DNS IP address(es). The concept works basically like DHCP for IPv4: The host sends a (multicast) IPv6 packet searching for the DHCP server. When a server replies, the DHCP client sends a message asking for a lease of an IP address, and the server replies, listing an IPv6 address, prefix length, default router, and DNS IP addresses. The names and formats of the actual DHCP messages have changed quite a bit from IPv4 to IPv6, so DHCPv4 and DHCPv6 differ in detail, but the basic process remains the same. (DHCPv4 refers to the version of DHCP used for IPv4, and DHCPv6 refers to the version of DHCP used for IPv6.)

DHCPv4 servers retain information about each client, like the IP address leased to that client and the length of time for which the lease is valid. This type of information is called state information, because it tracks the state or status of each client. DHCPv6 servers happen to have two operational modes: stateful, in which the server tracks state information, and stateless, in which the server does not track state information. Stateful DHCPv6 servers fill the same role as the older DHCPv4 servers, while stateless DHCPv6 servers fill one role in an IPv6 alternative to stateful DHCP. (Stateless DHCP, and its purpose, is covered in the upcoming section "IPv6 Host Address Assignment.")

One difference between DHCPv4 and stateful DHCPv6 is that IPv4 hosts send IP broadcasts to find DHCP servers, while IPv6 hosts send IPv6 multicasts. IPv6 multicast addresses have a prefix of FF00::/8, meaning that the first 8 bits of an address are binary 11111111, or FF in hex. The multicast address FF02::1:2 (longhand FF02:0000:0000:0000:0000:0000:0001:0002) has been reserved in IPv6 to be used by hosts to send packets to an unknown DHCP server, with the routers working to forward these packets to the appropriate DHCP server.

IPv6 Host Address Assignment

When using IPv4 in enterprise networks, engineers typically configure static IPv4 addresses on each router interface with the ip address interface subcommand. At the same time, most end-user hosts use DHCP to dynamically learn their IP address and mask. For Internet access, the router can use DHCP to learn its own public IPv4 address from the ISP.

IPv6 follows the same general model, but with routers using one of two options for static IPv6 address assignment, and with end-user hosts using one of two options for dynamic IPv6 address assignment. The following sections examine all four options. But first, to appreciate the configuration options, you need a little more information about the low-order 64 bits of the IPv6 address format: the interface ID.

The IPv6 Interface ID and EUI-64 Format

Earlier in this chapter, Figure 17-5 shows the format of an IPv6 global unicast address, with the second half of the address called the host or interface ID. The value of the interface ID portion of a global unicast address can be set to any value, as long as no other host in the same subnet attempts to use the same value. (IPv6 includes a dynamic method for hosts to find out whether a duplicate address exists on the subnet before starting to use the address.) However, the size of the interface ID was purposefully chosen to allow easy autoconfiguration of IP addresses by plugging the MAC address of a network card into the interface ID field in an IPv6 address.

MAC addresses are 6 bytes (48 bits) in length, so for a host to automatically decide on a value to use in the 8-byte (64-bit) interface ID field, IPv6 cannot simply copy just the MAC address. To complete the 64-bit interface ID, IPv6 fills in 2 more bytes. Interestingly, to do so, IPv6 separates the MAC address into two 3-byte halves, and inserts hex FFFE in between the halves, to form the interface ID field, as well as setting 1 special bit to binary 1. This format, called the EUI-64 format, is shown in Figure 17-7.

Figure 17-7

IPv6 Address Format with Interface ID and EUI-64

Although it might seem a bit convoluted, it works. Also, with a little practice, you can look at an IPv6 address and quickly notice the FFFE late in the address, and then easily find the two halves of the corresponding interface's MAC address.

To be complete, the figure points out one other small detail regarding the EUI-64 interface ID value. Splitting the MAC address into two halves, and injecting FFFE, is easy. However, the EUI-64 format requires setting the seventh bit in the first byte of the value to binary 1. The underlying reason is that Ethernet MAC addresses are listed with the low-order bits of each byte on the left, and the high-order bits on the right. So, the eighth bit in a byte (reading from left to right) is the highest-order bit in the address, and the seventh bit (reading from left to right) is the second highest-order bit. This second highest-order bit in the first byte—the seventh bit reading from left to right—is called the universal/local (U/L) bit. Set to binary 0, it means that the MAC address is a burned-in MAC address. Set to 1, it means that the MAC address has been configured locally. EUI-64 says that the U/L bit should be set to 1, meaning local.

For example, the following two lines list a host's MAC address and corresponding EUI-64 format interface ID, assuming the use of an address configuration option that uses the EUI-64 format:

  • 0034:5678:9ABC

  • 0234:56FF:FE78:9ABC


NOTE - To change the seventh bit (reading left-to-right) in the example, convert hex 00 to binary 00000000, change the seventh bit to 1 (00000010), and then convert back to hex, for hex 02 as the first two digits.


Static IPv6 Address Configuration

Two options for static IPv6 address configuration are covered in this book, and both are available on both routers and hosts: static configuration of the entire address, and static configuration of a /64 prefix with the host calculating its EUI-64 interface ID to complete the IP address. This section shows the concept using routers.

To configure an IPv6 address on an interface, the router needs an ipv6 address address/prefix-length [eui-64] interface subcommand on each interface. If the eui-64 keyword is not included, the address must represent the entire 128-bit address. If the eui-64 keyword is included, the address should represent the 64-bit prefix, with the router creating the interface ID using the EUI-64 format. The prefix-length parameter should be the length of the subnet prefix. For example, Example 17-1 lists the commands on Router R1 from Figure 17-6 earlier in this chapter, which is one of Company1's enterprise routers. It uses the site prefix length of /64. The example shows both versions of the command (with and without the eui-64 keyword.)

Example 17-1 Configuring Static IPv6 Addresses

! The first interface is in subnet 1, and will use EUI-64 as the Interface ID
!    
interface FastEthernet0/0
 ipv6 address 2340:1111:AAAA:1::/64 eui-64
! The next interface spells out the whole 128 bits, abbreviated. The longer 
! version is 2340:1111:AAAA:0003:0000:0000:0001/64. It is in subnet 2.
!
interface Serial0/0/1
 ipv6 address 2340:1111:AAAA:2::1/64 
! The third interface is in subnet 4, with EUI-64 format Interface ID again.
!
interface Serial0/1/1
 ipv6 address 2340:1111:AAAA:4::/64 eui-64
!
R1#show ipv6 interface fa0/0
FastEthernet0/0 is up, line protocol is up
 IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::213:19FF:FE7B:5004 
 Global unicast address(es):
  2340:1111:AAAA:1:213:19FF:FE7B:5004, subnet is 2340:1111:AAAA:1::/64 [EUI]
! Lines omitted for brevity
R1#show ipv6 interface S0/0/1
Serial0/0/1 is up, line protocol is up
 IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::213:19FF:FE7B:5004 
 Global unicast address(es):
  2340:1111:AAAA:3::1, subnet is 2340:1111:AAAA:3::/64
! Lines omitted for brevity
R1#show ipv6 interface s0/1/1
Serial0/1/1 is up, line protocol is up
 IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::213:19FF:FE7B:5004 
 Global unicast address(es):
  2340:1111:AAAA:4:213:19FF:FE7B:5004, subnet is 2340:1111:AAAA:4::/64 [EUI]
! Lines omitted for brevity

The end of the example lists the full global unicast IPv6 address as part of the show ipv6 interface command. When using the EUI-64 option, this command is particularly useful, because the configuration command does not list the entire IPv6 address. Note that if the EUI format is used, the show ipv6 interface command notes that fact (see interfaces Fa0/0 and S0/1/1, versus S0/0/1). Also, routers do not have MAC addresses associated with some interfaces, including serial interfaces, so to form the EUI-64–formatted interface ID on those interfaces, routers use the MAC address of a LAN interface. In this case, S0/1/1's interface ID is based on Fa0/0's MAC address.

Stateless Autoconfiguration and Router Advertisements

IPv6 supports two methods of dynamic configuration of IPv6 addresses. One uses a stateful DHCPv6 server, which as mentioned earlier, works the same as DHCP in IPv4 in concept, although many details in the messages differ between DHCPv4 and DHCPv6. IPv6 also supplies an alternative called stateless autoconfiguration (not to be confused with stateless DHCP, which is covered in this section). With stateless autoconfiguration, a host dynamically learns the /64 prefix used on the subnet, and then calculates the rest of its address by using an EUI-64 interface ID based on its network interface card (NIC) MAC address.

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