Linux commands for managing, partitioning, troubleshooting

Managing Linux disks and the file systems that reside on them is something of an art – from initial setup to monitoring performance

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$ sudo smartctl -a /dev/sda1
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-129-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family:     Western Digital Caviar Blue Serial ATA
Device Model:     WDC WD800AAJS-60M0A0
Serial Number:    WD-WMAV37134378
LU WWN Device Id: 5 0014ee 0015c85ef
Firmware Version: 02.03E02
User Capacity:    80,026,361,856 bytes [80.0 GB]
Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   ATA8-ACS (minor revision not indicated)
SATA Version is:  SATA 2.5, 3.0 Gb/s
Local Time is:    Thu Aug 31 15:30:19 2017 EDT
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED

General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x82) Offline data collection activity
                                        was completed without error.
                                        Auto Offline Data Collection: Enabled.
Self-test execution status:      (   0) The previous self-test routine completed
                                        without error or no self-test has ever
                                        been run.
Total time to complete Offline
data collection:                ( 2700) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:                    (0x5b) SMART execute Offline immediate.
                                        Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
                                        Suspend Offline collection upon new
                                        command.
                                        Offline surface scan supported.
                                        Self-test supported.
                                        No Conveyance Self-test supported.
                                        Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003) Saves SMART data before entering
                                        power-saving mode.
                                        Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01) Error logging supported.
                                        General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (   2) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:        (  36) minutes.
SCT capabilities:              (0x303f) SCT Status supported.
                                        SCT Error Recovery Control supported.
                                        SCT Feature Control supported.
                                        SCT Data Table supported.

SMART Attributes Data Structure revision number: 16
Vendor Specific SMART Attributes with Thresholds:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG  VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE     UPDATED WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
  1 Raw_Read_Error_Rate     0x002f 200  200   051    Pre-fail Always      -       0
  3 Spin_Up_Time            0x0027 143  140   021    Pre-fail Always      -       3841
  4 Start_Stop_Count        0x0032 100  100   000    Old_age  Always      -       178
  5 Reallocated_Sector_Ct   0x0033 200  200   140    Pre-fail Always      -       0
  7 Seek_Error_Rate         0x002f 100  253   051    Pre-fail Always      -       0
  9 Power_On_Hours          0x0032 058  058   000    Old_age  Always      -       31203
 10 Spin_Retry_Count        0x0033 100  100   051    Pre-fail Always      -       0
 11 Calibration_Retry_Count 0x0032 100  100   000    Old_age  Always      -       0
 12 Power_Cycle_Count       0x0032 100  100   000    Old_age  Always      -       175
184 End-to-End_Error        0x0033 100  100   097    Pre-fail Always      -       0
187 Reported_Uncorrect      0x0032 100  100   000    Old_age  Always      -       0
188 Command_Timeout         0x0032 100  100   000    Old_age  Always      -       0
190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0022 066  062   040    Old_age  Always      -       34
192 Power-Off_Retract_Count 0x0032 200  200   000    Old_age  Always      -       103
193 Load_Cycle_Count        0x0032 200  200   000    Old_age  Always      -       178
196 Reallocated_Event_Count 0x0032 200  200   000    Old_age  Always      -       0
197 Current_Pending_Sector  0x0032 200  200   000    Old_age  Always      -       0
198 Offline_Uncorrectable   0x0030 200  200   000    Old_age  Offline     -       0
199 UDMA_CRC_Error_Count    0x0032 200  200   000    Old_age  Always      -       0
200 Multi_Zone_Error_Rate   0x0008 200  200   000    Old_age  Offline     -       0

SMART Error Log Version: 1
No Errors Logged

SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description  Status                 Remaining LifeTime(hours) LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Short offline     Completed without error      00%    30349        -
# 2  Extended offline  Aborted by host              80%        0        -

SMART Selective self-test log data structure revision number 1
 SPAN  MIN_LBA  MAX_LBA  CURRENT_TEST_STATUS
    1        0        0  Not_testing
    2        0        0  Not_testing
    3        0        0  Not_testing
    4        0        0  Not_testing
    5        0        0  Not_testing
Selective self-test flags (0x0):
  After scanning selected spans, do NOT read-scan remainder of disk.
If Selective self-test is pending on power-up, resume after 0 minute delay.

There are numerous other commands for examining disks and file systems. Those described here are some of the most useful and informative. Using them periodically has advantages as the easiest way to spot problems is becoming so used to the output of commands such as these that you easily spot the kind of differences that might indicate problems.

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