Microsoft has introduced a new virtual WAN as a competitive differentiator and is getting enough tracking that AWS and Google may follow. At present, Microsoft is the only company to offer a virtual WAN of this kind. This made me curious to discover the highs and lows of this technology. So I sat down with Sorell Slaymaker, Principal Consulting Analyst at TechVision Research to discuss. The following is a summary of our discussion.\nBut before we proceed, let\u2019s gain some understanding of the cloud connectivity.\nCloud connectivity has evolved over time. When the cloud was introduced about a decade ago, let\u2019s say, if you were an enterprise, you would connect to what's known as a cloud service provider (CSP). However, over the last 10 years, many providers like Equinix have started to offer carrier-neutral collocations. Now, there is the opportunity to meet a variety of cloud companies in a carrier-neutral colocation. On the other hand, there are certain limitations as well as cloud connectivity.\nUndoubtedly, carrier-neutral colocation has fetched many advantages. However, even with this enhanced and flexible connectivity model, the pain-point for the majority of cloud companies is still the network connectivity. The network presents a number of challenges. Firstly, it will slow you down and secondly, from a security perspective, it makes you susceptible to vulnerabilities.\nThe connectivity transition\nWe are now entering into a new phase, taking the cloud connectivity to the next level. Primarily, the cloud is moving closer to the enterprise, as opposed to the enterprise moving closer to the cloud. So, where will this approach lead us to?\nEventually, we will see the removal of the CSP, where the connectivity is serviced directly into the enterprise. We have already witnessed this transition with AWS. AWS now allows the companies to run AWS infrastructure in their own private data centers. This, ultimately, enables the organization to connect the various VPCs together.\nWith this paradigm, the cloud meets the customer in the enterprise as opposed to the enterprise coming to the cloud, or to a carrier-neutral colocation. This will radically change the telecom environment; especially how circuits are procured and who procures them.\nCloud connectivity\nFirst, let\u2019s recap some basics. The connectivity to any cloud can be done via the internet or a private direct connection. The internet is untrusted and public, where an IPsec tunnel is created. It may be cheap and quick to provision logical tunnels, but this comes with certain drawbacks, such as security, uptime, latency, packet loss and jitter.\nAll such hindrances can degrade the application\u2019s performance severely. This can be critical to support the sensitive and hybrid applications requiring real-time backend on-premise communications. For direct connectivity, most cloud providers have a more stable solution rather than relying solely on the Internet.\nFor example, AWS has a product called AWS Direct Connect, whereas Microsoft has a product known as Azure ExpressRoute. Both products have the same end goal: cloud and on-premise endpoint connectivity that is not over the Internet.\nWith Microsoft's Azure ExpressRoute, you get a private connection with guaranteed service level agreement (SLA). It's like a natural extension to the on-premise data center that offers lower latency, higher throughput and better reliability than the Internet has to offer. However, there are some drawbacks to this mechanism.\nEven though ExpressRoute provides a private connection, enforcing end-to-end QoS is quite challenging. How Microsoft would label the packet will be different from how the service providers label based on their standard MPLS links. The other challenge is the lack of efficient load balancing due to separate BGP domains. Since ExpressRoute is not delivered end-to-end, so you are basically doing a cross-connect or meeting the service provider at a point where there is already another BGP domain available.\nAs a result, if you want to do equal-cost multipath (ECMP), complex failover and dynamic routing around congestion and configurations can get complex. This surfaces the demand for a change. Since Microsoft is aware of this need, therefore, they are evolving this ExpressRoute into what they are calling as the \u201cAzure Virtual WAN.\u201d A virtual WAN, as you might expect, provides a massive scale during the software-defined connectivity.\nWhat the virtual WAN offers?\nThe Azure Virtual WAN brings together many Azure cloud connectivity services, such as site-to-site VPN and ExpressRoute into a single operational interface. Now connectivity can leverage the Azure backbone to connect the branches and enjoy the branch-to-VNet connectivity. We will learn more about the new connectivity options later. The virtual WAN is purposely designed to provide large-scale site-to-site connectivity. It is built to offer throughput, scalability and ease of use.\nMicrosoft has virtual WAN locations that connect to the Microsoft virtual network. This network consists of 130 connections in 50 countries. This pushes the cloud connectivity model closer to the edge. Therefore, if you are using Azure or Office 365, connectivity is closer, as compared to doing a global backhaul. Microsoft's primary objective is to be within 30 ms of the consumer.\nMicrosoft also gives the option to do hop-on and hop-off, so that you can use the Microsoft global backbone as your WAN. In the case of remote offices in different locations, you only need to provide local circuits to the Microsoft edge point in that country. This eliminates the need for purchasing large WAN circuits.\nThis significantly allows you to have a global WAN where you don't have to pay for the expensive WAN circuits between or within counties.\nVirtual WAN offers the following advantages:\n\nIntegrated connectivity solutions in the hub-and-spoke: You can automate the site-to-site configuration and connectivity between the on-premises sites and an Azure hub.\nAutomated spoke setup and configuration: You can connect your virtual networks and workloads to the Azure hub seamlessly.\nIntuitive troubleshooting: You can see the end-to-end flow within Azure, and then use this information to take action when required\n\nThe partners and virtual Hub\nTypically, virtual WAN lets you connect and configure the branch devices to communicate with Azure. This can be done in two ways, either manually, or by using the provider devices offered through a virtual WAN partner.\nThe partner devices allow ease of use, simplification of connectivity and configuration management. The connectivity from the on-premise device is established in an automated way to the virtual hub. Fundamentally, a virtual hub is a Microsoft-managed virtual network.\nThe global transit network\nThe virtual WAN helps in laying the foundation of a global transit network architecture by enabling ubiquitous, any-to-any connectivity between distributed VNets, sites, applications and users.\nIn the WAN architecture, Azure regions serve as hubs, from which you can choose to connect your branches. Once the branches are connected, you can leverage the Azure backbone to establish, for example, branch-to-VNet and branch-to-branch connectivity.\nThe virtual WAN supports the following; global transit connectivity paths, branch to VNets, branch to branch, the remote user to VNet, the remote user to branch, VNet to VNet by using VNet peering and ExpressRoute global reach.\nThe WAN architecture\nThe architecture is based on a hub-and-spoke model where the Microsoft cloud-hosted network acts as the hub. This enables transitive connectivity between endpoints that may be distributed across different types of spokes.\nA spoke can be a VNets, physical branch site, remote user and internet. Global transit network architecture enables any-to-any connectivity via a central network hub. Largely, this architecture eliminates or reduces the need for full-mesh or partial mesh connectivity models that are complex to build and maintain.\nRouting control in mesh networks is easier to configure and maintain through the hub-and-spoke model. The Microsoft any-to-any connectivity enables an enterprise with globally distributed users, branches, data centers, VNets and applications to connect to each other through the Microsoft transit hub. In essence, it is this transit hub that acts as the global system.\nMainly, you can establish a virtual WAN by creating a single Virtual WAN hub in the region that has the largest number of spokes that can take the form of branches, VNets and users. Then you can connect the spokes that are in other regions of the hub. An alternative design would occur if the spokes are geographically distributed, you can also instantiate regional hubs and interconnect the hubs. The hubs are all part of the same virtual WAN, but the best part is that they can be associated with different regional policies.\nVirtual WAN SD-WAN capabilities\nCurrently, SD-WAN is not fully integrated. Microsoft offers SD-WAN services from a couple of SD-WAN vendors including Citrix, GloudGenix and 128 technologies as part of the overall virtual WAN offering.\nUnder this model, you could, for example, have a 1G connection to Azure and you can run the SD-WAN vendor software within the location. You can use that software to route to other Azure locations. Now since you are using the SD-WAN, you get all the SD-WAN services on top of the Microsoft virtual WAN i.e. route around congestion and another brownout. This is contrary to the typical protocol that routes only around blackouts.\nCitrix WAN optimization features allow you to tune and configure the WAN to have more control as opposed to relying on the underlying network. Although, Citrix is very strong with WAN optimization, but it is IPsec based. Therefore, its overall scaling is eventually limited to the limitations of scaling IPsec. On the other hand, an SD-WAN offering from 128 technologies is not IPsec tunnel-based and doesn't have the overhead. Thence, it can more intelligently route traffic in a one-to-many vs tunnels that are point-to-point.\nRegarding in-built security on the WAN backbone, Microsoft provides the connectivity to integrate the security solution according to your choice. If you want security to be over and above, you can service-chain a firewall vendor or leverage security in place of an SD-WAN service. The majority of SD-WAN players have layer 1 to layer 4 built into them. They don't have the proxies or the Layer 5 or higher than the security solutions that you get from security companies, such as Pao Alto but you always have the option to service-chain.