Midnight Commander \u2013 the "mc" command\u00a0\u2013 provides an easy way to browse directories and to view, move, delete, compare, change and edit files. Similar in some ways to ranger, mc makes it easy to move around directories and offers side-by-side file\/directory listings that work independently of each other. In addition, it provides a very wide range of actions that you can take through simple menu choices.\nTo start Midnight Commander, simply type "mc" in a terminal window. When you open mc, both the left and right sides of the display will look the same and will show the contents of whatever directory you started in. You can switch sides using the tab key or simply by clicking on a directory or file in the side of the display. You can select a file or directory simply by clicking on it. You can also browse directory contents using the up and down arrow keys.\nAs you move around the files on one side of the display, the other side will remain as it was.\nAs an example of using mc, you can edit a file simply by clicking on the file name and then clicking on the word Edit on the bottom of the display. This opens the file in nano.\nSpeaking of the line at the bottom of your display, you'll notice that it shows a list of actions that you can take. You can click on any of them to invoke the designated action. That line will look something like this:\n1Help 2Menu 3View 4Edit 5Copy 6RenMov 7Mkdir 8Delete 9 PullDn 10Quit\n\nThese choices are both numbered and named because they can be invoked by clicking on the names, by using the associated function key (e.g., F1 for Help), or by using an escape sequence (e.g., Esc-3 for View).\nThese choices do the following:\n\nHelp brings up a help page that you can exit by pressing the Esc key.\nMenu opens a menu showing commands that you can run. For example, you can compress the selected file with bzip2 just by typing "b".\nView displays file contents. Press the space bar to continue to the next screenful of data and the escape key to exit. For some file types, you will only see descriptive information (not file contents).\nEdit opens the file in a text editor and allows you to make and save changes.\nCopy makes a copy of the selected file after opening a form that provides a way for you to specify a file name.\nRenMov renames and moves a file after opening a form that allows you to specify the details.\nMkdir creates a new directory after opening a form that provides a way for you to specify a name.\nDelete deletes the selected file or directory. You can even choose to remove a directory recursively.\nPullDn allows you to use the pull-down menus at the top of the display. They offer many additional options (e.g., using the File pull-down, you can change file permissions, edit symlinks, etc.).\nQuit exits Midnight Commander\n\nPressing on Menu brings up these choices:\n@\tDo something on the current file \n0\tEdit a bug report an send it to root \n2\tCall the info hypertext browser \n3\tCompress the current subdirectory (tar.gz) \n4\tCompress the current subdirectory (tar.bz2) \n5\tCompress the current subdirectory (tar.xz) \n6\tCompress the current subdirectory (tar.xz) \n7\tCompress the current subdirectory (tar.zst)\na\tAppend file to opposite\nd\tDelete file is a copy exists in the other directory\nm\tView manual page \nn\tInspect gzip'ed newsbatch file \nh\tStrip headers from current newsarticle \nr\tCopy file to remote host \ny\tGzip or gunzip current file \nb\tBzip2 or bunzip2 current file\n\nAs you can see, the changes that you can make with a single key press are impressive.\nPress Esc to exit this listing.\nCommand examples\nTo move into a directory, select it and press the Enter key.\nTo view a file, select it and press View. Press the space bar to view more of the file and Esc to exit the content display.\nTo delete a file, select it and press Delete. You will need to confirm the deletion.\nTo rename a file, select it and press RenMov. You will be prompted for the new name. Then press OK.\nTo change file permissions, press PullDn, mouse right to File and down arrow to chmod and press Enter. A very user friendly form will open that allows you to select the permissions you want. Then click on Set.\nTo exit Midnight Commander, click on Quit. If this doesn't work, you probably still need to press Esc\u00a0first to exit some other listing you were viewing.\nThis is just a sampling of things that you can do with this tool.\nListing order\nIn Midnight Commander, the listing will show directories and then files. The "hiddens" (those starting with ".") will be listed first, followed by those starting with capital and then lowercase letters.\nFile will be color-coded by type.\n\nDirectories -- white\nFiles -- gray\nImages -- light blue\nCompressed files -- pink\nVideo files -- green\nBackground -- blue\n\nYou can make some changes by editing mc's configuration file. This\u00a0 will be\u00a0~\/.config\/mc\/ini\u00a0or ~\/.mc\/ini.\nWrap-up\nMidnight Commander is a powerful tool for browsing, comparing, moving, modifying and manipulating files in what many would consider a user-friendly manner. That is, you don't have to type a lot of Linux commands, but you do have to get used to clicking your way around its menus and forms. Some of its features \u2013 such as the ability to compare file listings side-by-side or change permissions by clicking on permissions boxes \u2013 are fairly unique. For most of us, mc could make working on Linux a very different experience.