MPLS and Quality of Service

Cisco Press

A good example where QoS is needed is VoIP traffic. VoIP traffic needs to be delivered within a certain time to the destination, or it becomes obsolete. Therefore, QoS should prioritize the VoIP traffic to ensure that it is delivered within a certain time constraint. To achieve this, it is possible within Cisco IOS to queue VoIP with a higher priority than FTP or HTTP traffic and to make sure that if congestion occurs, FTP or HTTP traffic is dropped ahead of the VoIP traffic. Cisco IOS has several mechanisms to do this on a router. Refer to Table 12-1 for examples of QoS functions and features in Cisco IOS.

Table 12-1 QoS Functions and Corresponding Cisco IOS-Enabling Features

QoS FunctionsCisco IOS-Enabling Features
Traffic classificationAccess control list matching
Traffic marking

IP Precedence bits


MPLS EXP2 field
Congestion management


Congestion avoidanceWRED5
Traffic conditioningShaping and policing

1—DSCP = DiffServ Codepoint

2—EXP = Experimental

3—LLQ = low-latency queuing

4—CBWFQ = class-based weighted fair queueing

5—WRED = weighted random early detection

You can set the priority of an IP packet either in the IP Precedence field (three bits) or in the six bits of the DiffServ Codepoint field (DSCP). Originally, only three bits of the Type of Service field (TOS) in the IP header were reserved for QoS. The number of bits in the IP header that could be used for QoS was later increased to six with the introduction of DiffServ QoS.

DiffServ with IP Packets

Refer to Figure 12-1 to refresh your memory about what the IP header looks like.

Figure 12-1

Figure 12-1

IP Header Fields

Figure 12-2 shows you how the TOS field is divided.

Figure 12-2

Figure 12-2

The TOS Byte of the IP Header Defining the Precedence Bits

The usage of the precedence bits for QoS is now widely used throughout the world for many networks. The drawback of the precedence bits, however, is that only three exist, which means you can have only eight levels of service. Therefore, the IETF decided to dedicate more bits for QoS. The four TOS bits were deprecated, and three of them were assigned to DiffServ QoS, in addition to the three precedence bits. DiffServ ended up with six bits, providing more than enough levels of QoS. Figure 12-3 shows you which bits of the TOS byte are used for DiffServ.

Figure 12-3

Figure 12-3

The TOS Byte of the IP Header Defining the DSCP per RFC 2474

Two types of forwarding classes within the DiffServ model are defined: expedited forwarding (EF) and assured forwarding (AF). EF is a low loss, low latency, low jitter, assured bandwidth, end-to-end service through a DiffServ domain. AF defines different services of forwarding assurances through a DiffServ domain. Four classes of AF are defined, each with three drop precedence. AF classes are noted as AFij, with i being 1 to 4 for the class and j being 1 to 3 for the drop precedence. The first three bits of the six-bit DSCP field define the class, the next two bits define the drop precedence, and the last bit is reserved. The higher the drop precedence inside a class, the more likely the packet is to be dropped, relative to the other packets with lower drop precedence when congestion occurs. Four classes exist for the traffic, and three levels exist for drop precedence. AF23, for example, denotes class 2 and drop precedence 3. Table 12-2 shows the recommended values for the four assured forwarding classes.

Table 12-2 Recommended Values for the Four AF Classes

NameDSCP (binary)DSCP (decimal)

Table 12-3 shows you the four AF classes, each with three drop precedence.

Table 12-3 Four AF Classes and Three Drop Precedence

Drop PrecedenceClass 1Class 2Class 3Class 4

If you are using EF, the recommended DiffServ field is 101110 (decimal 46). The default class is 0 or 000000 in binary. In Cisco IOS, you can find all these values when configuring QoS with the Modular QoS Command Line Interface (MQC). Example 12-1 shows how to configure the router to match a certain DSCP in a class map on a router.

Example 12-1 Matching DSCP in a Class Map

router(config-cmap)#match ip dscp ?
 <0-63>  Differentiated services codepoint value
 af11   Match packets with AF11 dscp (001010)
 af12   Match packets with AF12 dscp (001100)
 af13   Match packets with AF13 dscp (001110)
 af21   Match packets with AF21 dscp (010010)
 af22   Match packets with AF22 dscp (010100)
 af23   Match packets with AF23 dscp (010110)
 af31   Match packets with AF31 dscp (011010)
 af32   Match packets with AF32 dscp (011100)
 af33   Match packets with AF33 dscp (011110)
 af41   Match packets with AF41 dscp (100010)
 af42   Match packets with AF42 dscp (100100)
 af43   Match packets with AF43 dscp (100110)
 cs1   Match packets with CS1(precedence 1) dscp (001000)
 cs2   Match packets with CS2(precedence 2) dscp (010000)
 cs3   Match packets with CS3(precedence 3) dscp (011000)
 cs4   Match packets with CS4(precedence 4) dscp (100000)
 cs5   Match packets with CS5(precedence 5) dscp (101000)
 cs6   Match packets with CS6(precedence 6) dscp (110000)
 cs7   Match packets with CS7(precedence 7) dscp (111000)
 default Match packets with default dscp (000000)
 ef    Match packets with EF dscp (101110)

You can match any of the 64 DSCP values (0–63) just by configuring that DSCP value. You can also match the AF classes, the Class Selector (CS)—if you only want to match the first three bits of the DSCP—, the default class, and the EF class.

DiffServ with MPLS Packets

Remember the syntax of a label from Chapter 2, "MPLS Architecture"? Figure 12-4 is a refresher.

Figure 12-4

Figure 12-4

Syntax of an MPLS Label

As you can see, there are three EXP, or experimental, bits. They are called experimental, but they are really used only for QoS. You can use these bits in the same way that you use the three precedence bits in the IP header. If you use these three bits for QoS, you can call the label switched path (LSP) an E-LSP, indicating that the label switching router (LSR) will use the EXP bits to schedule the packet and decide on the drop precedence. However, when you are using MPLS, you have another option for implementing QoS for the labeled packets. An LSP is a signaled path through the network between two routers. You can use the label on top of the packet to imply part of the QoS for that packet. However, then you need one label per class for each flow of traffic between the two endpoints of the LSP. Therefore, the signaling protocol has to be able to signal a different label for the same LSP or prefix. Such an LSP is called an L-LSP, indicating that the label implicitly holds part of the QoS information. With an L-LSP, the EXP bits still hold part of the QoS, but only the drop precedence, whereas the label indicates the class. With an E-LSP, the EXP bits hold both the class and the drop precedence information. Because Cisco IOS implements only E-LSPs, this chapter looks only at E-LSPs when describing how to implement QoS in MPLS networks.

When an LSR forwards a labeled packet, it needs only to look up the top label in its label forwarding table (LFIB) to decide where to forward the packet. The same is true for the QoS treatment. The LSR needs only to look at the EXP bits of the top label to determine how to treat this packet. Remember that QoS constitutes traffic marking, congestion management, congestion avoidance, and traffic conditioning and that you can use low-latency queuing (LLQ), class-based weighted fair queueing (CBWFQ), weighted random early detection (WRED), policing, and shaping to implement this for IP packets. You can use the same features to implement QoS based on the EXP bits for labeled packets. For example, WRED has been modified to look at the EXP bits to determine the drop precedence of labeled packets when being queued. The preferred way to configure MPLS QoS in Cisco IOS is by means of the Modular Quality of Service Command Line Interface (MQC). MQC is an easy, straightforward way of configuring the different QoS building blocks on the router.

Default MPLS QoS Behavior in Cisco IOS

In Cisco IOS, the default behavior when imposing one or more labels on an IP packet is to copy the precedence value to the EXP bits of all imposed labels. This is called TOS reflection, because nothing regarding QoS changes by default. If, however, the six bits of the DSCP field are used, only the first three bits of DSCP are copied to the EXP bits of the labels. This leads to the first MPLS QoS rule.

MPLS QoS Rule 1: By default, in Cisco IOS, the precedence bits or the first three bits of the DSCP field in the IP header are copied to the EXP bits of all imposed labels at the ingress LSR.

Forwarding a labeled packet is a bit more complicated. You have to distinguish two cases: swapping a label, and possibly imposing one or more labels on the one hand and disposing one or more labels on the other hand. In the case of swapping an incoming label with an outgoing label on the LSR, the EXP bits are copied from the incoming label to the outgoing label. The same is true when swapping a label and then imposing one or more labels. The value of the EXP bits is copied from the incoming label to the swapped outgoing label and also to the labels that are then pushed on top of the swapped label. However, forwarding a labeled packet in the disposition mode, meaning that a label is popped, is quite different. When the router forwards a labeled packet and issues a pop, the value of the EXP bits is not copied to the newly exposed label or to the IP Precedence field (or possibly the DSCP field) of the IP header, if the packet becomes unlabeled. This means that, by default, in Cisco IOS, the EXP bits of the newly exposed label or the IP precedence/DSCP field of the newly exposed IP header remains unchanged and dictate the new QoS of the packet. This leads to the second, third, and fourth MPLS QoS rule.

MPLS QoS Rule 2: By default, in Cisco IOS, the EXP bits of the incoming top label are copied to the swapped outgoing label and to any label pushed onto that.

MPLS QoS Rule 3: By default, in Cisco IOS, the EXP bits of the incoming top label are not copied to the newly exposed label when the incoming label is popped.

MPLS QoS Rule 4: By default, in Cisco IOS, the EXP bits of the incoming top label are not copied to the precedence bits or DSCP bits when the label stack is removed and the IP header becomes exposed.

Furthermore, when you use MQC to change the QoS of the labeled packet, only the top label and possible pushed labels receive the new value for the EXP bits. The labels underneath the top label in the label stack do not receive the new value for the EXP bits. The precedence bits or DSCP bits do not change either. This means that when you manually change the QoS of a labeled packet on a certain LSR, that packet changes its QoS value sometime later in the network. Namely, when the label is popped off, the value of the EXP bits of the incoming top label is not copied to the newly exposed label, following MPLS QoS Rule 3. That means that the old QoS value of the packet is now active again. This actually happens frequently, because penultimate hop popping (PHP) is the default behavior in Cisco IOS. It happens by default in many MPLS networks and is something to watch out for. If you want to keep the new QoS value of the packet, you need to configure Cisco IOS commands to make sure that the QoS is copied down at disposition time. You will read more about that later in this chapter. This leads to the fifth MPLS QoS rule.

MPLS QoS Rule 5: When you change the EXP bits value through configuration, the value of the EXP bits in labels other than the top label, the swapped label, or the imposed labels and the precedence bits or DSCP bits in the IP header remain unchanged.

MPLS QoS Rules 4 and 5 lead to the fact that QoS tunneling becomes available. This means that the QoS value of the IP packet is transported through the MPLS network without change.

Look at Figure 12-5. You can see a Label Switch Router (LSR) with two interfaces. The left interface is the ingress interface, and the right is the egress interface. An IP packet or labeled packet comes in on the left interface and leaves the router on the right interface. This chapter uses this simple drawing throughout to clearly show the behavior of the EXP bits when a packet goes through the router. In each figure, the IP packet is the rectangle in the clear, and a label is one gray rectangle on top of the IP packet. In the IP packet, the QoS information is shown as the DSCP value. Each label also shows the EXP bits value.

Figure 12-5

Figure 12-5

Sample LSR Drawing with an Ingress and an Egress Interface

Figure 12-6 shows you the default treatment by Cisco IOS of the EXP bits in the label(s) when imposing, swapping, or disposing of labels. When you imply the five MPLS QoS rules, you get the default forwarding treatment that is shown in Figure 12-6.

Figure 12-6

Figure 12-6

Default Treatment by Cisco IOS of the EXP Bits When Imposing, Swapping, and Disposing of MPLS Labels

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